There is no happiness like mine.
I have been eating poetry.
Teachers-in-training have long been taught that fourth grade is when students stop learning to read and start reading to learn. But a new Dartmouth study in the journal Developmental Science tested the theory by analyzing brain waves and found that fourth-graders do not experience a change in automatic word processing, a crucial component of the reading shift theory. Instead, some types of word processing become automatic before fourth grade, while others don’t switch until after fifth.
The findings mean that teachers at all levels of elementary school must think of themselves as reading instructors, said the study’s author, Associate Professor of Education Donna Coch.
"Until now, we lacked neurological evidence about the supposed fourth-grade shift," said Coch, also principal investigator for Dartmouth’s Reading Brains Lab. "The theory developed from behavioral evidence, and as a result of it, some teachers in fifth and sixth grade have not thought of themselves as reading instructors. Now we can see from brain waves that students in those grades are still learning to process words automatically; their neurological reading system is not yet adult-like."
Automatic word processing is the brain’s ability to determine whether a group of symbols constitutes a word within milliseconds, without the brain’s owner realizing the process is taking place.
To test how automatic word processing develops, Coch placed electrode caps on the heads of third-, fourth-, and fifth-graders, as well as college students. She had her test subjects view a screen that displayed a mix of real English words (such as “bed”), pseudo-words (such as “bem”), strings of letters (such as “mbe”), and strings of meaningless symbols one at a time. The setup allowed her to see how the subjects’ brains reacted to each kind of stimulus within milliseconds. In other words, she could watch their automatic word processing.
Next, Coch gave the participants a written test, in which they were asked to circle the real words in a list that also contained pseudo-words, strings of letters, and strings of meaningless symbols. This task was designed to test the participants’ conscious word processing, a much slower procedure.
Interestingly, most of the 96 participants got a nearly perfect score on the written test, showing that their conscious brains knew the difference between words and non-words.
However, the electrode cap revealed that only the college students processed meaningless symbols differently than real words. The third-, fourth-, and fifth-graders’ brains reacted to the meaningless symbols the same way they reacted to common English words.
"This tells us that, at least through the fifth grade, even children who read well are letting stimuli into the neural word processing system that more mature readers do not," Coch said. "Their brains are processing strings of meaningless symbols as if they were words, perhaps in case they turn out to be real letters. In contrast, by college, students have learned not to process strings of meaningless symbols as words, saving their brains precious time and energy."
The phenomenon is evidence that young readers do not fully develop automatic word processing skills until after fifth grade, which contradicts the fourth-grade reading shift theory.
The brain waves also showed that the third-, fourth-, and fifth-graders processed real words, psuedowords, and letter strings similarly to college students, suggesting that some automatic word processing begins before the fourth grade, and even before the third grade, also contradicting the reading shift theory.
"There is value to the theory of the fourth grade shift in that it highlights how reading skills and abilities develop at different times," Coch said. "But the neural data suggest that teachers should not expect their fourth-graders, or even their fifth-graders, to be completely automatic, adult-like readers."
“The cradle rocks above an abyss, and common sense tells us that our existence is but a brief crack of light between two eternities of darkness.”
—Vladimir Nabokov, Speak, Memory
Source. This is a real thing. It’s happening.
This is HUGE news, and of course no one is talking about it because it is not a part of popular culture. For the first time in the history of the world, there is a possible preventative cure for one of the most deadliest viral diseases to have entered the human gene pool. There is hope for those who have been diagnosed with a disease that may have given them only 20 or so years to live. This breakthrough in the science/pharmaceutical community means that other viral diseases and genetic mutations that were once incurable are now on the table for complete eradication. I’m absolutely seething that no one is talking about this on the news 24/7.
and while this is hella important, herpes is getting complex to the point there is no cure or no way to work with it.
I really need both of these to go viral.
!!!! THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT !!!!
"Of course there aren’t any gay characters in animated movies! THEY’RE FOR KIDS!"
Yeah! Kids’ movies are supposed to be innoc-
Because telling kids that they can love whoever they want is TOO TERRIFYING AND CONFUSING. But showing them murder, execution, death, frightening images, war, and bullying is just fine.
Not to mention 101 Dalmatians where a crazy woman wanted to SKIN 99 PUPPIES
It’s like Marvel is really trying to piss people off, lol.
calling it, whoever the new iron man is they won’t be straight. marvel’s tryna go for the trifecta.
Nothing makes me more pleased than Marvel making Marvel fanboys angry about genuinely good and interesting comic choices.
Um, this is fantastic. Why the hell are you complaining?
>genuinely good and interesting comic choices
That’s an interesting way to spell “obvious pandering”.
Throwing away iconic characters on a whim so you can please the demands of pissy ideologues who could not care less about the comics themselves and only care about pushing their own agenda where it doesn’t belong, is not “genuinely good and interesting comic choices.”
You know superhero mantels get passed around ALL THE TIME right?
There’s multiple Flashes, Green Lanterns, Robins, Ms. Marvels, Captain Marvels, Spidermans, and even Wonder Womans, right? There’s even more than one Batman. THERES ALREADY MORE THAN ONE CAPTAIN AMERICA. (Bradley AND Barnes have both used the name already.)
Starting a new run where the mantel gets passed onto someone who isn’t a white dude isn’t “throwing away iconic characters.” It’s using a staple of the comic narrative to bring in new fans, energize franchises, and diversify line ups.
Pffft, fake nerd boys, not even understanding how mantel passing works.
Oh I’m sorry you think you’re so smart you can look how mantel passing works on Wikipedia wow fucking move over people who have a genuine liking of comic books, dumbass Feminist bitches who think they have an opinion are pushing their agendas down your throat, and no matter what you say, you’re wrong.
A GENUINE liking of comic books?
You think I don’t genuinely enjoy comic books?
Being a misogynist doesn’t give you a monopoly on liking superhero comics, my friend. Does it bother you that OTHER comic fans aren’t bothered by these things?